Nick Carr on August 23, 2017 0 Comments History of American Lagers America’s road to its bland interpretation of lager is not, as many craft beer snobs haughty exclaim, the work of some massive “Big Beer” conspiracy propagated against the American public. Instead, a series of unfortunate circumstances and events found us trivializing our palates until they became rusty and any sign of bitterness or heavier malt in our beer became an egregious affront to these newly steered sensibilities. The Road to Bland Beer in America Until the mid 1800s, American’s enjoyed much the same beers as were popular in parts of Europe, higher strength, often darker beer. However, barley did not fare well as a crop in the early colonies, so it had to be imported from England making the cost of brewing the beer high. English beer itself was also imported to some extent, but this too was cost prohibitive. In an attempt to cut these costs, American brewers made due with what was available. They replaced portions of the malt with Indian corn, wheat, squash — including pumpkins — molasses, and even peas; and in doing so, unknowingly took the first slow steps toward neutralizing America’s palate. In the 1600s, beer as a whole went through a time of decline as liquor, hard cider, and some nonalcoholic drinks became more popular. This lowered status continued until the early 1800s, and the coming of the Temperance movement. Many within this social movement felt that complete abstinence “teetotalism” would fail to gain many converts to the cause and instead they focused on harder alcohol, viewing beer as a lesser evil. So, for at least a time, as the Temperance ideals took hold and focused on strong spirits, brewer’s found an unlikely and somewhat unwilling alley. How German Migrants Changed American Beer This brewing resurgence was closely coupled with an influx of German migrants into America. They came seeking political and religious freedoms, they came seeking a new life with new opportunities and they brought their native lager brewing techniques with them. One of these brewers was David G. Yuengling, who established the Eagle Brewery in 1829 — later renamed for its founder — and is considered the oldest operating brewery in the United States. These German brewers wanted to recreate the golden-brown, crisp Bavarian lagers of their homeland. Though domestic barley was becoming available it wasn’t of the same quality the German brewers were used to back home and the, still, prohibitive cost of importation made it an unlikely alternative. So, they took the path already established by earlier American brewers and turned to adding adjuncts, such as rice and corn, to the brew pot. These lagers were a hit with the working class and their popularity was also seen as a win in the eyes of the Temperance movement. As Ranjit Dighes talks about in his research, industry workers often had their lunches in saloons and it was common for them to have a beer or two as part of their meal. But, it wouldn’t do to be intoxicated on the job. At this time there was no set standard of alcohol content displayed. Customers often equated lighter colored, lighter tasting, and less heavy beer with lower alcohol. Blandness meant lower alcohol, a plus for the working stiff on his lunch break. But, there was room for an even lighter, more neutral tasting beer. It came in the form of the Bohemian Pilsner, which was quickly Americanized by the, now almost requisite, addition of adjuncts and lessening of hops. This made it even paler and blander, which fit with current customer demand. In some cases this shift to adjuncts, fueled by customer demand, was actually more expensive for breweries. It cost Anheuser-Busch customers a nickel more when the brewery increased the amount adjunct rice in their grain bill. The beer was still a resounding success. The Seeds of Prohibition Start to Take Root As the 1800s rolled to a close, the Temperance movement shifted its target to beer. They’d had major achievements in the campaign against hard liquor consumption, which had dropped 80 percent by the turn of the century, but it seemed beer, left unchecked, had flooded into the gap left behind. In 13 years, 1900 to 1913, beer production increased by over a billion gallons. Buoyed by some state enacted prohibition legislation the Temperance movement saw beers’ rising popularity as a threat that needed to be dealt a serious blow. The hammer finally fell in 1920 with the passing of the 18th Amendment (PDF) and the start of Prohibition. More than 1,500 breweries closed their doors. A few, big enough to absorb some loss and inventive enough to change what they produced, weathered the storm. Coors went into ceramics, a very successful sideline that is continued today. Yuengling opened an ice cream and dairy plant; their ice cream is available today. Anheuser-Busch made a long list of prohibition products including, soft drinks, ice cream, and nonalcoholic beer. Pabst started making cheese. There were others that struggled through Prohibition, but none brewed beer for those 13 years. Repealing Prohibition & The Resurgence of “Beer” When Prohibition was repealed in 1933 America had an innocent palate. Thirteen years is a long time to hold a memory of how something should taste and a whole generation came of age without even this vague memory. This already bland memory was further diluted by the popularity of soda-pop and other non-alcoholic drinks, the go-to during Prohibition. It takes time to grow accustomed to certain flavors and, generally, people will resist change once they’ve become accustomed to how, they feel, something should taste. Thirteen years with little chance to reinforce a memory built upon 100 years increasing popularity of increasingly bland lagers and pilsners. The breweries had little choice but to brew to their customers’ remembered taste. The Great Depression caused a consolidation of many breweries. Americans searched out the simple and inexpensive ensuring those breweries left operating only produced what was most popular and cheap to make; what they knew would sell. Grain restrictions during World War II further guaranteed no challenge would be issued to this bland memory and the memory was further reinforced by the weak beer issued to America’s fighting men as part of their standard rations. That same neutral memory so much of the U.S. holds as “beer standard” has made the American lager what it is today: popular. It is still brewed with a large amount of corn or rice adjunct, but the reasons for their use have shifted. Today there are no wartime grain restrictions and brewing grain is easily available. Adjuncts continue to be used simply because it’s become part of the profile customers expect and love in the style. Of course there’s the bottom-line stuff too. Now, supplementing part of the grain bill with adjuncts is cheaper than brewing all grain. But it remains a fact: the brewery will always bow to the customers wants. The customer wants this beer, this way. So, it is. Generally, this style has more flavor and body than an American Light lager, but is weaker in overall profile than international lagers and significantly weaker across the board when compared to European pilsners. In fact, some examples of the style are marketed in the U.S. as pilsners, something the brewers could never manage in Europe where a German pilsner is a thing of great pride. Style Profile & Characteristics The guidelines for the American Lager style are set by the Beer Judge Certification Program (BJCP) Style Committee. The below details are a summary of what an American Lager should represent. Quick Characteristics Color Range: 2-4 SRM Original Gravity: 1.040-1.050 OG Final Gravity: 1.004-1.010 FG IBU Range: 8-18 ABV Range: 4.2-5.3% Appearance: Sunny straw to pale gold yellow. Great clarity. White, foamy head. Terrible retention. Aroma: Weak aroma. Grainy, sweet malts. Floral and spicy hops. Little yeast aroma, with noticeable DMS. Flavor: Neutral flavor. Low grainy malts balanced with low hoppiness. Finish is dry and crisp. Mouthfeel: Very light body, almost watery. Zippy carbonation. Serving & Storage Temperature: 38-40°F Shelf Life: Less Than 3 Months Suggested Glass: Pilsner or Pint Glass Food Pairings: Salty snacks, pizza, lightly grilled fish recipes, light salads, pepper jack cheese, fruity desserts Older BJCP guidelines called this style American Standard Lager. The 2015 changes to the BJCP guidelines renamed the style simply American Lager and classifies the style under “Standard American Beer.” It can be found in their guidelines as category 1B. Other beer styles within this category include: American Light Lager (1A), Cream Ale (1C), and American Wheat Beer (1D). Appearance: Extremely clear with a sun-bleached straw to pale golden yellow color. Head will be starkly white, and foamy, but will rarely have good retention. Aroma: Quite weak across the board. Malt aromas if present at all will be grainy, with slight sweetness or even a corn-like quality. Hops, again if present, will be lightly floral or spicy. Clean fermentations leave little in the way of yeast character, but may have traces of green apple and low, but noticeable amounts of DMS are common. Mouthfeel: Very light, often boarding on watery, in body with a zippy highly carbonated mouthfeel. Taste: Generally, quite neutral in flavor with low to medium-low grainy flavors. The low to medium-low hop bitterness can give the malt a sweet corn-like presence. Hop flavors will also be very subdued. If discernible the hop flavors may have a floral, herbal, or spicy character. Balance is usually close to even between the malt and hops but some examples are somewhat hoppy and others are somewhat malt-forward. Finish is very dry and crisp; a characteristic often augmented by high carbonation levels and makes this beer extremely thirst quenching. Pairing: Generally you’ll want to stay with pretty light food when pairing with an American lager, but it will handle a little bit of heat, and its heavy carbonation helps keep the palate fresh. A lot of salty snack foods, i.e. pretzels, popcorn, peanuts, and tortilla chips, work great with this style. Lightly grilled fish plates, fish tacos, light summer salads, and lightly spiced seafood, – such as buttered crab – also find a friend here. On fuller flavored fare this beer works to keep the palate cleansed. Try it with marinated chicken, steak, pizza, or brats. When it comes to that before dinner cheese plate fill it with pepper jack and young fresh cheeses. The American Lager is generally considered too light to back a dessert play, but it may work with a fruit bowl. Serving & Storage: For best presentation and greatest appreciation, an American Lager should be served at around 38-40°F in a Pilsner or pint glass. They are best stored at cellar temperatures away from light and should be enjoyed within 3 months of purchase. *Reference: The 2015 BJCP Style Guidelines Recent Award-Winning Examples of the Style Rainier Lager from Pabst Brewing Company (Los Angeles, CA) — World Beer Cup Winner, Gold, 2016. Available: Year Round. High Life from Miller Brewing Company (Milwaukee, WI) — World Beer Cup Winner, Silver, 2016. Available: Year Round. Rocket 100 from The Austin Beer Garden Brewing Company (Austin, TX) — World beer cup Winner, Bronze, 2016. Available: Rotating. Coors Banquet from Coors Brewing Company (Golden, CO) — Great American Beer Festival Winner, Gold, 2015; Bronze, 2014; and World Beer Cup Winner, Bronze, 2014. Available: Year Round. Summer Siesta Mexican Lager from Lone Tree Brewing Company (Lone Tree, CO) — Great American Beer Festival Winner, Silver, 2015. Available: Rotating. Southern Girl Lager from Sycamore Brewing Company (Charlotte, NC) — Great American Beer Festival Winner, Bronze, 2015. Available: Rotating. Miller Genuine Draft from Miller Brewing Company (Milwaukee, WI) — World Beer Cup Winner, Silver, 2014. Available: Year Round. Popular American Lagers To Try Budweiser from Anheuser-Busch Pabst Blue Ribbon from Pabst Brewing Company Yuengling Premium from Yuengling Brewing Company #Merica! from Surly Brewing Company Schlitz Gusto from Schlitz Brewing Company (owned by Papst Blue Ribbon) Narragansett Lager from Narragansett Brewing Company Lager from Guns & Oil Brewing Company 1811 Lager from Fort George Brewing Company How to Brew an American Lager Recipe No matter your feelings when it comes to American lagers, it’s important to note that this style is not easy to brew. You are basically making an oh-so-subtle, nearly blank, canvas for the palate. That exacting clean blankness that craft beer snobs love to decry makes it impossible to conceal any faults in the brewing process. Another good illustration of off flavors in a neutral profile is the image hidden in those 3D stereogram — optical illusion — posters. It takes some time to find the hidden image. This can be likened to an off flavor in a beer with more hops and a bigger malt profile. The off-flavor is hard to spot, may even remain hidden, because of the complex background. Now, imagine the stereogram gone and the — once hidden — image standing alone against a clean white background. It’s impossible not to see it; the same as even a miniscule off flavor in an American lager. So, it is not easy to make a quality example of the American Lager style, and this should definitely not be your first shot at brewing lager beer. Try to brew a few of the more forgiving and complex lager styles first. Sharpen those lager brewing procedures, practices, and ingredient selection. Only when you have a finally honed edge to your technique, take this one on. Grain Bill: Start with stellar ingredients; fresh and of the highest possible quality. Just like off flavors from brewing practices, off flavors from stale or sub-par ingredients will appear front and center when it comes time to relax and enjoy your labors. So, it’s important to get it right. The grain bill is simple. It is generally made up of 2-row or a 2-row/6-row mix. Along with additions of corn or rice adjuncts that can make up to 40% of the grain bill. The American Lager is a light colored style (only 2 to 4 SRM), so stick to malts light in color. Because of the high percentage of adjuncts you need to pay attention to the diastatic power of your malt and your grain bill as a whole. Diastatic power is the ability of the malt to break down starches in to simpler fermentable sugars via enzymatic action. This ability is usually measured in degrees lintner (°L). Generally 2-row has a diastatic power of around 140°L and 6-row about 160°L. And you need above 30°L overall to have enough enzymatic power to finish conversion in a reasonable amount of time. You can figure out the diastatic power for a batch of beer by: multiplying the Lintner of each grain in your recipe by that grains weight. Then add these together and divide by the total weight of your grain bill. As far as I can tell, you’d have little trouble having enough diastatic power to convert additions of even 40% adjunct using only 2-row. But, there is something to be said of having that little extra help to make starch conversion a little faster during the mash. So, if you’re going to have additions of adjuncts above 30% it may not hurt to consider adding a portion of 6-row in there for the extra diastatic power. Adjuncts For the adjunct, you can either go with corn, rice, or a combination of the two. Corn will add a somewhat sweet, slightly fuller flavor to the beer, while rice will add little perceptible flavor. Both rice and corn are available in flaked form, which can be added directly to the mash, making them easier to use. If you do get your adjunct in flaked form, be sure to taste them. Flakes can go stale quickly. You could also buy corn grits or regular old rice, but you’d need a cereal mash to make the starches available for conversion. In most cases, that’s your grain bill. Sometimes a little dextrin or Carapils malt might be added to help with body and head. You also might play with very small quantities of light-colored specialty malts — but note, this would be going rogue. Extract Brewing For the extract brewer, you may want to wait until you start brewing all-grain before trying to tackle the American Lager style. It’s hard to get it right on extract alone. If you decide you can’t wait and want to give it a try, you’ll need to do a partial mash at the very least. Yes, there is brewer’s corn syrup or rice syrup available, but this will not give you the exact character you’d be looking for. Your base should be of the freshest, highest attenuating pale malt extract you can find. You’ll also need enough 2-row or 6-row malt to perform a partial mash with your flaked adjunct grains. Read through this article on Extract Brewing Tips, paying particular attention to the boiling tips and the tip addressing holding some of your extract in reserve. These tips will help reduce color uptake. If you decide to hold some amount of your extract in reserve, add it 10 to 15 minutes before the end of boil. Water: You want a soft water for this style. A general water profile might look like (ppm or mg/L): Calcium- 25-50 Sulfate- 25-35 Chloride – 25-50 Magnesium- 0-10 Sodium- 0-10 You can work on adjusting your filtered tap water to your profile, but it might be easier to start with a clean slate of reverse osmosis water, and adjust from there. Hops: You won’t be asking much more than some bittering balance from your hops. Bittering is light, hitting an IBU rating of 8 to 18; aroma is very, very low or none at all; and flavor is very low or none at all. Common varieties include many of the classic American hops such as Cascade, Chinook, or Cluster. The domestically grown noble hops, known for their spicy/floral character, are also excellent choices. The Mash: You need a very fermentable mash for this style. So, you’ll want to either use a long single infusion mash or a long step mash. Which of these mashes works better is really a matter of opinion between individual brewers. All I can suggest is, do it one way and take good notes — both process and tasting — then next time do it the other way and see if you have a preference. Keep a pretty thin mash with a liquid to grist ratio of 3.5quarts:1pound of grain. This will slow down your mash, but will also lead to a more fermentable wort because the enzymes will not be hindered by a high sugar concentration. For both types of mashes you’ll want a saccharification temperature basically at the bottom of the brewer’s window, 144-148°F. The low temperature creates a highly fermentable wort, but it will also take longer for conversion to take place. You also want a longer mash to ensure conversion of the adjuncts. It is rumored that Budweiser does a step mash with a 2 hour saccharification rest. If you want to do the step mash hit a regular protein rest at 122°F for 15 minutes, up the temperature to your saccharification rest and hold for 90 to 120 minutes. After this raise the temperature to 158°F and give the alpha amylase 15 to 20 minutes to work, mash out at 168°F. Because of the thinner mash you’ll need less sparging water, if you need any at all. You may find the runoff fills your needed volume, but it is good to sparge at least a little to get all the sweet stuff rinsed out of the grains. Also, you have a long boil coming and remember you lose about 8% of your volume in an hour of aggressive boiling. Boil: Boil is pretty standard. It is a 60-90 minute boil. Add your bittering hops at 60 minutes. If you’ve chosen to add a small quantity of flavor or aroma hops, add them at the appropriate time. A longer boil will help decrease DMS levels and because you’ll be brewing with lighter malts (2-row, 6-row, and pilsner), which have more of the DMS precursor S-Methyl Methionine, I’d suggest going for the longer boil. Remember to boil vigorously with the lid off. But, if you’re extract brewing, try to keep your boil as short as possible to reduce color pickup. *Note: Six-row malt is significantly higher in the precursor to DMS, S-Methyl Methionine, than two-row. Yeast: To get that mostly “naked” palate experience you need a lager yeast that ferments extremely clean, and has a high attenuation to make a dry finish. Some likely candidates include the following: Wyeast: American Lager (2035) or Pilsen Lager (2007) White Labs: American Pilsner (WLP840) or even the Pilsner Lager (WLP800) Dry Yeast: Saflager S-23 and W-34/70 will both work, though W-34/70 may ferment a little cleaner Organic: Imperial Organic L17 Harvest (L17) Fermentation: This will be a typical lager fermentation. Cool your wort down to around 50°F, or whatever the pitching temperature is for your chosen yeast, as quickly as possible; aerate it well, and pitch. Ensure you follow quantity instructions for the yeast. Fermentation should be done within 10 days. Once it begins to slow you may want to raise the temperature up to the low 60s for a couple of days to accomplish a diacetyl rest. Once primary is complete, rack the beer over to a secondary and lager at 32°F for up to a month. When ready to package shoot for a CO2 volume of between 2.5 and 2.8. Cheers!